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Contains aristolochic acid I and II in the Nitrophenanthrene carboxylic acid group. It is both genotoxic and carcinogenic. Carcinogenic in mice, rats and rabbits. Urothelial cancers develop in patients with aristolochic acid nephropathy. They are genotoxic mutagens that form DNA-adducts.
van den Berg, S.J.P.L., Restani, et al., P.. (2011). Levels of Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Compounds in Plant Food Supplements and Associated Risk Assessment. Food and Nutrition Science 2: 989-1010. link
- Northern America, Southwestern U.S.A., California
Aristolochia californicaFamily: ARISTOLOCHIACEAE
Common names: California snakeroot
Hardiness: H5 - Hardy; cold winter
Garden status: Not currently grown